Crossmark Policy

CrossMark, CrossRef's multi-publisher initiative, provides a standard way for readers to find authoritative versions of documents. Elsevier recognizes the importance of the integrity and completeness of scientific records to researchers and librarians and attaches great importance to maintaining trust in the authority of its electronic archives. Clicking the CrossMark icon will notify the reader of the current status of the document and may also provide additional publication notes information about the document.

Publication Type

Addendum Publish items provide additional information about other publication items, most of which provide additional results.
Duplicate Accidental copying of articles in other journals. The text of the article is withdrawn. The HTML page is replaced by a page with detailed citations and explanations. Fixed PDF pages with a watermark on each page to let them know they are duplicates.
Erratum Articles in which errors are reported that were made in previous publications in the same journal. It can be Erratum (publishing error) but also Corrigendum (author error).
Removal The article text is deleted. The HTML page and PDF page of the article were completely removed and replaced by a single page with detailed citations and explanations.
Retraction The article text is deleted. HTML pages and PDF pages of articles are completely removed and supported by a single page with detailed citations and explanations.
Review article A substantial overview of the original research, usually with a comprehensive bibliography, usually also includes a table of contents.
DOI 10.28989/Av-crossmark