Air pollution dispersion modeling of runway and apron at Sam Ratulangi international airport

Dewi Eviane, Taufik Abdillah Natsir, Nur Iswanto, Zulfadly Urufi, Mardiyanto Adji


Air pollution generated from airport activities has become public concern and the subject of more rigorous government regulations.  The Airport Operators are stipulated to control the pollution and for the accountability of air quality that might affect public health. The main objective of this study is to establish a model for the distribution of air pollutants and to predict their concentrations generated by the runway and apron operations at Sam Ratulangi International Airport (Manado) until 2024, in accordance with the airport expansion program. The data was collected in the airport surrounding area in 2018, while the climate data over a span of 10 years, from 2009 to 2018, was obtained from Sam Ratulangi Meteorological Station. The modeling on dispersion of air pollutant gases was developed by the Gaussian Plume Equation. The simulation was performed using AERMOD software, and the results visualized by GIS software. AERMOD software was recommended by the US-EPA to predict the impact of air pollutants. The results predicted that the maximum concentrations of NOx; HC; and CO generated by runway activities modeling in 2024 were 250 μg.m-3; 6.4 μg.m-3; and 87 μg.m-3 respectively. The results also predicted that the maximum concentrations of NOx; CO; and PM10 due to apron operational activities in 2024 were 260 μg.m-3; 892 μg.m-3; and 2.5 μg.m-3 respectively. The model predicted that in 2024 the air pollution at Sam Ratulangi International Airport will remain under the limit as defined in Indonesian Government Regulation No. 22 of 2021. To mitigate the future increase in air emissions due to the increase in airport capacity, the recommendation were proposed in the several areas, which were including operation management, technology, policies and airport regulations, as well as the provision of green area.


modeling; dispersion,;pollutant

Full Text:



E. Terrenoire, D. A. Hauglustaine, T. Gasser, and O. Penanhoat, “The Contribution of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Aviation Sector to Future Climate Change,” Environ.Res.lett, vol. 14, 2019.

O. Zaporozhets and K. Synylo, “Modeling of Air Pollution at Airports,” InteechOPen, 2019.

B. Stacey, R. M. Harrison, and F. D. Pope, “Evaluation of Aircraft Emissions at London Heathrow Airport,” Atmos. Environ., 2021.

A. Tokuslu, “Estimation of Aircraft Emissions at Georgian International Airport,” Energy, vol. 206, pp. 1–7, 2020.

X. Yang, S. Cheng, J. Lang, R. Xu, and Z. Lv, “Characterization of Aircraft Emissions and Air Quality Impacts of an International Airport,” J.of Environ. Sci., vol. 72, pp. 198–207, 2018.

A. Kumar, R. S. Patil, A. K. Dikshit, and R. Kumar, “Application of AERMOD for Short Term Air Quality Prediction with Forecasted Meteorology using WRF Model,” Clean Technol. Environ. Policy, 2017.

S. L. Kuzu, “Estimation and Dispersion Modeling of Landing and Take-off ( LTO ) Cycle Emissions from Atatürk International Airport,” Air Qual Atmos Heal., 2017.

I. Simonetti, S. Maltagliati, and G. Manfrida, “Air Quality Impact of a Middle Size Airport Within an Urban Context through EDMS Simulation,” Transp. Res. Part D, vol. 40, pp. 144–154, 2015.

M. Makridis and M. Lazaridis, “Dispersion Modeling of Gaseous and Particulate Matter Emissions from Aircraft Activity at Chania Airport, Greece,” Air Qual. Atmos. Heal., no. 2017, 2019.

A. Andre et al., “Analisis Kapasitas dan Optimalisasi Apron Sam Ratulangi Manado,” J. Sipil Statik, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 175–182, 2020.

T. A. Natsir et al., “Using Aermod to Simulation Study of Carbon Monoxide Pollution Effect in Yogyakarta City Caused by The Emission of Motor Vehicles,” J. Mns. Lingkung., vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 11–16, 2017.

D. Tulandi, J. Tumangkeng, and F. Tumbelaka, “Analisis Data Angin Permukaan di Bandara Sam Ratulangi Manado Menggunakan Metode Wind Rose,” JSME (Jurnal Sains, Mat. dan Edukasi), vol. 1, pp. 11–16, 2020.

M. Winther et al., “EMEP/EEA Air Pollutant Emission Inventory Guidebook 2016,” 2017.

A. N. Izzah, N. Nasrullah, and B. Sulistyantara, “Efektivitas Jalur Hijau Jalan dalam Mengurangi Polutan Gas CO (The Effectivity of Roadside Green Belt in Reducing the Concentration of CO Gas Pollutant ),” J. Ilmu Pertan. Indones., vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 337–342, 2019.

Article Metrics

Abstract view: 75 times
Download     : 2   times

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


  • There are currently no refbacks.