Endurance estimation in hovering flight based on battery power requested on quadcopter UAV

Richard Octonius, Neno Ruseno

Submitted : 2022-04-08, Published : 2022-11-01.


In this era, Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) application is growing. However, there are still weaknesses in using UAVs to carry out certain missions. One of the major problems is the energy and power required to use the UAV which impacts the endurance of a UAV can hover. This study focuses on calculating the endurance and finding which configuration will produce the optimal endurance. It starts by calculating the thrust of a propeller using blade element theory which ends in calculating endurance. Using four different types of propellers, an integral formulation was devised for a constant–power battery discharge process to predict the hovering time. The result shows that APC 1238 combined with battery 6S will produce the longest endurance. The methodology is applicable for a custom quadcopter UAV.


Endurance estimation, UAV propeller, Blade element theory, Thrust calculation, UAV hovering

Full Text:



B. Multicopters, M. Cho, and C. Han, "Estimation of Hovering Flight Time of Battery-Powered Multicopters," Journal of Aerospace System Engineering, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 11-20, 2021, doi:10.20910/JASE.2021.15.4.11.

G. de Carvalho Bertoli, G. M. Pacheco, and G. J. Adabo, "Extending flight endurance of electric unmanned aerial vehicles through photovoltaic system integration," 2015 International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications, ICRERA 2015, vol. 5, pp. 143-147, 2015, doi: 10.1109/ICRERA.2015.7418556

J. Hnidka and D. Rozehnal, "Calculation of the maximum endurance of a small unmanned aerial vehicle in a hover," IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 664, no. 1, 2019, doi: 10.1088/1757-899X/664/1/012002

M. H. Hwang, H. R. Cha, and S. Y. Jung, "Practical endurance estimation for minimizing energy consumption of multirotor unmanned aerial vehicles," Energies (Basel), vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 1-10, 2018, doi: 10.3390/en11092221

DERYA KAYA, "Estimation Of Aerodynamic Loads Of A Propeller Through Improved Blade Element And Momentum Theory And Propeller Design Optimization," 2021.

E. L. de Angelis, F. Giulietti, G. Rossetti, and G. Bellani, "Performance analysis and optimal sizing of electric multirotors," Aerospace Science and Technology, vol. 118, p. 107057, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.ast.2021.107057

Derya Kaya, "Modeling And Experimental Identification Of Quadrotor Aerodynamics," The Graduate School Of Natural And Applied Sciences Of Middle East Technical University, 2014.

D. Shop, "MT4006-13 - 740KV - T-MOTOR," 2021. https://www.droneshop.com/moteurs-brushless/mt4006-13-740kv-t-motor-p-69662html

G. Avanzini, E. L. de Angelis, and F. Giulietti, "Optimal performance and sizing of a battery-powered aircraft," Aerospace Science and Technology, vol. 59, no. October, pp. 132-144, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.ast.2016.10.015

H. C. Drones, "Thrut-to-Weight Ratio Scale," 2022. https://www.halfchrome.com/drone-thrust-testing/

S. International, H. Axis, and W. Turbines, "Blade-Element / Momentum Theory," J. N. Sørensen, Ed. Springer International Publishing Switzerland, 2016, pp. 99-121. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-22114-4

Article Metrics

Abstract view: 101 times
Download     : 35   times

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


  • There are currently no refbacks.